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The thermal baths made the difference in San Casciano dei Bagni, in various eras: the Bagni di Chiusi, frequented by Augustus, may well be located here. In the thirteenth century, there was a revival and not surprisingly, Ghino di Tacco kidnapped the abbot of Cluny while he was on his way to take the waters in San Casciano. The Visconti feudal lords had always wavered between Orvieto and Siena until Monaldo sanctioned an approach towards the latter, which resulted in the final submission of 1412. Privileges were granted in exchange and a lot of focus on the thermal baths. The last act of war was the sacking by Vitellozzo Vitelli in 1495. In the meantime, while the remains of the Roman baths are being excavated, the thermal building commissioned in 1607 by Ferdinand I of the Medici, to which contemporary structures have been added, is still impressive.